Enjoy Day 2

We will need vec and array to keep things organized as index.

Vec, iter, map, collect, into_iter, enumerate, unwrap

fn main() {
    // Create new `vec` and `array` of `&str`.
    let mut vec_of_foo = vec!["foo", "bar"]; // Say hi to vec! macro.
    let array_of_foo = ["foo", "bar"]; // Array of &str.

    println!("vec_of_foo: {vec_of_foo:#?}");
    println!("array_of_foo: {array_of_foo:#?}");

    // The different?
    vec_of_foo.push("baz"); // You can push more to Vec

    // 😱 Uncomment to see an error "no method named `push` found for array `[&str; 2]`".
    // FYI: `[&str; 2]` mean fixed array of &str usize 2.
    // 👍 Anyway fixed size is actually good for memory management, don't hate it!
    // array_of_foo.push("baz"); // You can't to fixed Array [&str; 2]

    // 1️⃣ Back to Vec, Let's iterate them.
    let hello_vec = vec_of_foo
        .iter() // Must `iter()` before you can map, filter,...
        .map(|e| format!("hello {e}")) // Say hi to `closure` |e| aka (e)=> in js.
        .collect::<Vec<_>>(); // `collect` inferred type from iterate.
        //             👆 `_` is inferred type (let compiler desire).

    println!("hello_vec: {hello_vec:#?}");

    // 2️⃣ Do it again but with index.
    let indexed_vec = vec_of_foo
        .enumerate() // To access index we need `enumerate`.
        .map(|(i, e)| (i, e)) // Say hi to `Tuple` type.
        .collect::<Vec<(usize, &&str)>>(); // i is `usize`, e is &&str.

    println!("indexed_vec: {indexed_vec:#?}");

    // 3️⃣ Do it again but `into_iter`.
    let into_iter_indexed_vec = vec_of_foo
        .into_iter() // `into_iter` instead of `iter` for `deref` (Wait what?).
        .map(|(i, e)| (i, e))
        .collect::<Vec<(usize, &str)>>(); // e is just &str not &&str.
                                          // Or just `<Vec<_>>` if you lazy.

    println!("into_iter_indexed_vec: {into_iter_indexed_vec:#?}");

    // `into_iter` is handy to pass value without borrow
    // but it can be problematic sometime if it has been borrowed by 1️⃣ and 2️⃣.

    // 😱 Uncomment this to see an error.
    // assert_eq!(
    //     indexed_vec.first().unwrap().1,  // FYI: avoid unwrap on prod.
    //     &into_iter_indexed_vec.first().unwrap().1
    // );

💡 ::<> is turbo fish 🐟💨 .
💡 Read more about iterate here.
💡 If you crazy about iterate do try Rust Iterator Cheat Sheet

So iter will make an auto borrow & for us which is handy.
Anyway we can use into_iter if we need to move instead of borrow with caution.
And also <Vec<_>> is for lazy crab like us, nice!

🏂 Fun fact!
String and Vec is allocated in heap.
str and array is allocated in stack.

HashMap, match, Option, Some, None, unwrap_or, panic

HashMap is like Key/Value pair.

use std::collections::HashMap; // `use` aka `import` in js.
// We talk about :: 👆 already, it's just a separator.

fn main() {
    // Create new mutable hashmap
    let mut foo_hashmap = HashMap::new(); // Yet another :: here.

    // It's mutable so we can update it
    foo_hashmap.insert("name", "foo");
    foo_hashmap.insert("age", "42");

    // Or rather use HashMap::from for batch insert.
    let mut foo_hashmap = HashMap::from([
        ("name", "foo"),
        ("age", "42"),

    // Now use it
    let maybe_name: Option<&&str> = foo_hashmap.get("name"); // Will return `Option<&&str>`.

    // `match` aka `switch` in js.
    // Let's handle `Option<&&str>` which can be `Some` or `None`.
    match maybe_name {
        Some(name) => println!("1️⃣ hello {name}"), // Will print "hello foo".
        None => panic!("who!?"),                   // Will throw error with `panic!` macro.

    // Or handle with `unwrap_or`.
    let unwrapped_name = maybe_name.unwrap_or(&"who!?");

    // And assign back by return after matched.
    let hi = match unwrapped_name {
        &"foo" => format!("2️⃣ hi! {unwrapped_name}"), // Will return unwrapped_name.
        _ => panic!("who!?"),                         // `_` aka `default` in js.


    // Let's iterate and print it out.
        .iter()                             // iter as usual, will use `for_each`.
        .for_each(|e| println!("{:?}", e)); // Just print, No need to collect.

    // Then we will use get👇 to borrow the value.
    let name = foo_hashmap.get("name").unwrap();

    // Or take it by remove 👇.
    let age = foo_hashmap.remove("age").unwrap();

    // 😱 So this will fail because we already remove it above.
    // let age = foo_hashmap.remove("age").unwrap();

💡 Option<T>⎯⎯ unwrap → Some<T>/None which T is generic.
To know more about this try read more.

Don't be surprise if you found all this confusing. I did! But don't give up just yet!

Continue to Day 3 ➠